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Q81. Refer to the exhibit. 

The VLAN-to-MST mapping is shown. (Assume SW1 acts as root for all possible MST instances.) 

spanning-tree mst configuration name MST 

revision 2 

instance 0 vlan 1-200,301-4094 instance 1 vlan 201-300 

If this topology is deployed, which action is required for traffic to flow on VLAN 200 and 300? 

A. Map VLAN 300 to instance 0. 

B. Map VLAN 200 to instance 2. 

C. Move instance 0 root to SW2. 

D. Move instance 1 root to SW2. 

E. Map both VLANs to instance 2. 

Answer:


Q82. Which option describes how a VTPv3 device responds when it detects a VTPv2 device on a trunk port? 

A. It sends VTPv3 packets only. 

B. It sends VTPv2 packets only. 

C. It sends VTPv3 and VTPv2 packets. 

D. It sends a special packet that contains VTPv3 and VTPv2 packet information. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

When a VTP version 3 device on a trunk port receives messages from a VTP version 2 device, the VTP version 3 device sends a scaled-down version of the VLAN database on that particular trunk in a VTP version 2 format. A VTP version 3 device does not send out VTP version 2-formatted packets on a trunk port unless it first receives VTP version 2 packets on that trunk. If the VTP version 3 device does not receive VTP version 2 packets for an interval of time on the trunk port, the VTP version 3 device stops transmitting VTP version 2 packets on that trunk port. Even when a VTP version 3 device detects a VTP version 2 device on a trunk port, the VTP version 3 device continues to send VTP version 3 packets in addition to VTP version 3 device 2 packets, to allow two kinds of neighbors to coexist on the trunk. VTP version 3 sends VTP version 3 and VTP version 2 updates on VTP version 2-detected trunks. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/lan/catalyst6500/ios/12-2SX/configuration/guide/book/vtp.html 


Q83. What can PfR passive monitoring mode measure for TCP flows? 

A. only delay 

B. delay and packet loss 

C. delay and reachability 

D. delay, packet loss, and throughput 

E. delay, packet loss, throughput, and reachability 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Passive monitoring metrics include the following: 

. Delay: Cisco PfR measures the average delay of TCP flows for a given prefix or traffic class. Delay is the measurement of the round-trip response time (RTT) between the transmission of a TCP synchronization message and receipt of the TCP acknowledgement. 

. Packet loss: Cisco PfR measures packet loss by tracking TCP sequence numbers for each TCP flow; it tracks the highest TCP sequence number. If it receives a subsequent packet with a lower sequence number, PfR increments the packet-loss counter. Packet 

loss is measured in packets per million. 

. Reachability: Cisco PfR measures reachability by tracking TCP synchronization messages that have been sent repeatedly without receiving a TCP acknowledgement. 

. Throughput: Cisco PfR measures TCP throughput by measuring the total number of bytes and packets for each interesting traffic class or prefix for a given interval of time. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/ios-nx-os-software/performance-routing-pfr/product_data_sheet0900aecd806c4ee4.html 


Q84. When BGP route reflectors are used, which attribute ensures that a routing loop is not created? 

A. weight 

B. local preference 

C. multiexit discriminator 

D. originator ID 

Answer:

Explanation: 

As the iBGP learned routes are reflected, routing information may loop. The route reflector model has the following mechanisms to avoid routing loops: 

. Originator ID is an optional, nontransitive BGP attribute. It is a 4-byte attributed created by a route reflector. The attribute carries the router ID of the originator of the route in the local autonomous system. Therefore, if a misconfiguration causes routing information to come back to the originator, the information is ignored. 

. Cluster-list is an optional, nontransitive BGP attribute. It is a sequence of cluster IDs that the route has passed. When a route reflector reflects a route from its clients to nonclient peers, and vice versa, it appends the local cluster ID to the cluster-list. If the cluster-list is empty, a new cluster-list is created. Using this attribute, a route reflector can identify if routing information is looped back to the same cluster due to misconfiguration. If the local cluster ID is found in the cluster-list, the advertisement is ignored. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_2/ip/configuration/guide/fipr_c/1cfbgp.html 


Q85. Which three features are common to OSPF and IS-IS? (Choose three.) 

A. They both maintain a link-state database from which a Dijkstra-based SPF algorithm computes a shortest path tree. 

B. They both use DR and BDR in the broadcast network. 

C. They both use hello packets to form and maintain adjacencies. 

D. They both use NSSA and stub type areas to scale the network design. 

E. They both have areas to form a two-level hierarchical topology. 

Answer: A,C,E 


Q86. What is Nagle's algorithm used for? 

A. To increase the latency 

B. To calculate the best path in distance vector routing protocols 

C. To calculate the best path in link state routing protocols 

D. To resolve issues caused by poorly implemented TCP flow control. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Silly window syndrome is a problem in computer networking caused by poorly implemented TCP flow control. A serious problem can arise in the sliding window operation when the sending application program creates data slowly, the receiving application program consumes data slowly, or both. If a server with this problem is unable to process all incoming data, it requests that its clients reduce the amount of data they send at a time (the window setting on a TCP packet). If the server continues to be unable to process all incoming data, the window becomes smaller and smaller, sometimes to the point that the data transmitted is smaller than the packet header, making data transmission extremely inefficient. The name of this problem is due to the window size shrinking to a "silly" value. When there is no synchronization between the sender and receiver regarding capacity of the flow of data or the size of the packet, the window syndrome problem is created. When the silly window syndrome is created by the sender, Nagle's algorithm is used. Nagle's solution requires that the sender sends the first segment even if it is a small one, then that it waits until an ACK is received or a maximum sized segment (MSS) is accumulated. 

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silly_window_syndrome 


Q87. Refer to the exhibit. 

Which feature can R1 use to fail over from R2 to R3 if the address for R2 becomes unavailable? 

A. object tracking 

B. HSRP 

C. GLBP 

D. LACP 

Answer:

Explanation: 

The object tracking feature allows you to create a tracked object that multiple clients can use to modify the client behavior when a tracked object changes. Several clients register their interest with the tracking process, track the same object, and take different actions when the object state changes. 

Clients include the following features: 

. Embedded Event Manager (EEM) 

. Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP) 

. Hot Standby Redundancy Protocol (HSRP) 

. Virtual port channel (vPC) 

. Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) 

The object tracking monitors the status of the tracked objects and communicates any changes made to interested clients. Each tracked object is identified by a unique number that clients can use to configure the action to take when a tracked object changes state. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/switches/datacenter/sw/5_x/nx-os/unicast/configuration/guide/l3_cli_nxos/l3_object.html 


Q88. Refer to the exhibit. 

Which additional information must you specify in this configuration to capture NetFlow traffic? 

A. ingress or egress traffic 

B. the number of cache entries 

C. the flow cache active timeout 

D. the flow cache inactive timeout 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Configuring NetFlow 

Perform the following task to enable NetFlow on an interface. SUMMARY STEPS 

1. enable 

2. configure terminal 

3. interface type number 

4. ip flow {ingress | egress} 

5. exit 

6. Repeat Steps 3 through 5 to enable NetFlow on other interfaces. 

7. end 

DETAILED STEPS 

Command or Action 

Purpose 

Step 1 

enable 

Example: 

Router> enable Enables privileged EXEC mode. . 

Enter your password if prompted. 

Step 2 

configure terminal Example: 

........

Example: 

Router(config)# interface ethernet 0/0 

Specifies the interface that you want to enable NetFlow on and enters interface configuration mode. 

Step 4 

ip flow {ingress | egress} 

Example: 

Router(config-if)# ip flow ingress 

Enables NetFlow on the interface. 

. ingress—Captures traffic that is being received by the interface 

. egress—Captures traffic that is being transmitted by the interface 

Step 5 

exit 

Example: 

Router(config-if)# exit 

(Optional) Exits interface configuration mode and enters global configuration mode. 

Note 

You need to use this command only if you want to enable NetFlow on another interface. 

Step 6 

Repeat Steps 3 through 5 to enable NetFlow on other interfaces. 

This step is optional. 

Step 7 

end 

Example: 

Router(config-if)# end Exits the current configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mod 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/netflow/configuration/guide/12_2sr/nf_12_2sr_boo k/cfg_nflow_data_expt.html 


Q89. Which congestion-avoidance or congestion-management technique can cause global synchronization? 

A. Tail drop 

B. Random early detection 

C. Weighted random early detection 

D. Weighted fair queuing 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Tail Drop 

Tail drop treats all traffic equally and does not differentiate between classes of service. Queues fill during periods of congestion. When the output queue is full and tail drop is in effect, packets are dropped until the congestion is eliminated and the queue is no longer full. 

Weighted Random Early Detection 

WRED avoids the globalization problems that occur when tail drop is used as the congestion avoidance mechanism on the router. Global synchronization occurs as waves of congestion crest only to be followed by troughs during which the transmission link is not fully utilized. Global synchronization of TCP hosts, for example, can occur because packets are dropped all at once. Global synchronization manifests when multiple TCP hosts reduce their transmission rates in response to packet dropping, then increase their transmission rates once again when the congestion is reduced. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_2/qos/configuration/guide/fqos_c/qcfconav.ht ml#wp1002048 


Q90. Which option is the default point of insertion for the BGP cost community? 

A. before best path calculation 

B. after best path calculation 

C. after the IGP metric comparison 

D. after the router ID comparison 

Answer: