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Q341. Jim’s Organization just completed a major Linux roll out and now all of the organization’s systems are running Linux 2.5 Kernel. The roll out expenses has posed constraints on purchasing other essential security equipment and software. The organization requires an option to control network traffic and also perform stateful inspection of traffic going into and out of the DMZ, which built-in functionality of Linux can achieve this? 


B. IP Sniffer 

C. IP tables 

D. IP Chains 

Answer: C

Explanation: iptables is the name of the user space tool by which administrators create rules for the packet filtering and NAT modules. While technically iptables is merely the tool which controls the packet filtering and NAT components within the kernel, the name iptables is often used to refer to the entire infrastructure, including netfilter, connection tracking and NAT, as well as the tool itself. iptables is a standard part of all modern Linux distributions. 

Q342. A common technique for luring e-mail users into opening virus-launching attachments is to send messages that would appear to be relevant or important to many of their potential recipients. One way of accomplishing this feat is to make the virus-carrying messages appear to come from some type of business entity retailing sites, UPS, FEDEX, CITIBANK or a major provider of a common service. 

Here is a fraudulent e-mail claiming to be from FedEx regarding a package that could not be delivered. This mail asks the receiver to open an attachment in order to obtain the FEDEX tracking number for picking up the package. The attachment contained in this type of e-mail activates a virus. 

Vendors send e-mails like this to their customers advising them not to open any files attached with the mail, as they do not include attachments. 

Fraudulent e-mail and legit e-mail that arrives in your inbox contain the as the sender of the mail. 

How do you ensure if the e-mail is authentic and sent from 

A. Verify the digital signature attached with the mail, the fake mail will not have Digital ID at all 

B. Check the Sender ID against the National Spam Database (NSD) 

C. Fake mail will have spelling/grammatical errors 

D. Fake mail uses extensive images, animation and flash content 

Answer: A

Q343. David is a security administrator working in Boston. David has been asked by the office's manager to block all POP3 traffic at the firewall because he believes employees are spending too much time reading personal email. How can David block POP3 at the firewall? 

A. David can block port 125 at the firewall. 

B. David can block all EHLO requests that originate from inside the office. 

C. David can stop POP3 traffic by blocking all HELO requests that originate from inside the office. 

D. David can block port 110 to block all POP3 traffic. 

Answer: D

Q344. In this type of Man-in-the-Middle attack, packets and authentication tokens are captured using a sniffer. Once the relevant information is extracted, the tokens are placed back on the network to gain access. 

A. Token Injection Replay attacks 

B. Shoulder surfing attack 

C. Rainbow and Hash generation attack 

D. Dumpster diving attack 

Answer: A

Q345. What attack is being depicted here? 

A. Cookie Stealing 

B. Session Hijacking 

C. Cross Site scripting 

D. Parameter Manipulation 

Answer: D

Explanation: Manipulating the data sent between the browser and the web application to an attacker's advantage has long been a simple but effective way to make applications do things in a way the user often shouldn't be able to. In a badly designed and developed web application, malicious users can modify things like prices in web carts, session tokens or values stored in cookies and even HTTP headers. In this case the user has elevated his rights. 

Q346. Attackers target HINFO record types stored on a DNS server to enumerate information. These are information records and potential source for reconnaissance. A network administrator has the option of entering host information specifically the CPU type and operating system when creating a new DNS record. An attacker can extract this type of information easily from a DNS server. 

Which of the following commands extracts the HINFO record? 

A. Option A 

B. Option B 

C. Option C 

D. Option D 

Answer: A

Q347. Study the following exploit code taken from a Linux machine and answer the questions below: 

echo “ingreslock stream tcp nowait root /bin/sh sh –I" > /tmp/x; 

/usr/sbin/inetd –s /tmp/x; 

sleep 10; 

/bin/ rm –f /tmp/x AAAA…AAA 

In the above exploit code, the command “/bin/sh sh –I" is given. 

What is the purpose, and why is ‘sh’ shown twice? 

A. The command /bin/sh sh –i appearing in the exploit code is actually part of an inetd configuration file. 

B. The length of such a buffer overflow exploit makes it prohibitive for user to enter manually. The second ‘sh’ automates this function. 

C. It checks for the presence of a codeword (setting the environment variable) among the environment variables. 

D. It is a giveaway by the attacker that he is a script kiddy. 

Answer: A

Explanation: What's going on in the above question is the attacker is trying to write to the unix filed /tm/x (his inetd.conf replacement config) -- he is attempting to add a service called ingresslock (which doesnt exist), which is "apparently" suppose to spawn a shell the given port specified by /etc/services for the service "ingresslock", ingresslock is a non-existant service, and if an attempt were made to respawn inetd, the service would error out on that line. (he would have to add the service to /etc/services to suppress the error). Now the question is asking about /bin/sh sh -i which produces an error that should read "sh: /bin/sh: cannot execute binary file", the -i option places the shell in interactive mode and cannot be used to respawn itself. 

Q348. Exhibit: 

You are conducting pen-test against a company’s website using SQL Injection techniques. You enter “anuthing or 1=1-“ in the username filed of an authentication form. This is the output returned from the server. 

What is the next step you should do? 

A. Identify the user context of the web application by running_ 


USER_NAME() = ‘dbo’ 

B. Identify the database and table name by running: AND ascii(lower(substring((SELECT TOP 1 name FROM sysobjects WHERE xtype=’U’),1))) > 109 

C. Format the C: drive and delete the database by running: AND xp_cmdshell ‘format c: /q /yes ‘; drop database myDB; --

D. Reboot the web server by running: AND xp_cmdshell ‘iisreset –reboot’; --

Answer: A

Q349. You are trying to compromise a Linux Machine and steal the password hashes for cracking with password brute forcing program. Where is the password file kept is Linux? 

A. /etc/shadow 

B. /etc/passwd 

C. /bin/password 

D. /bin/shadow 

Answer: A

Explanation: /etc/shadow file stores actual password in encrypted format for user’s account with additional properties related to user password i.e. it stores secure user account information. All fields are separated by a colon (:) symbol. It contains one entry per line for each user listed in /etc/passwd file. 

Topic 19, Evading IDS, Firewalls and Honeypots 

459. Exhibit 

Study the log given in the exhibit, 

Precautionary measures to prevent this attack would include writing firewall rules. Of these firewall rules, which among the following would be appropriate? 

A. Disallow UDP 53 in from outside to DNS server 

B. Allow UDP 53 in from DNS server to outside 

C. Disallow TCP 53 in from secondaries or ISP server to DNS server 

D. Block all UDP traffic 

Answer: C

Explanation: According to the exhibit, the question is regarding the DNS Zone Transfer. Since Zone Transfers are done with TCP port 53, you should not allow this connect external to you organization. 

Q350. Bart is looking for a Windows NT/2000/XP command-line tool that can be used to assign, display, or modify ACL’s (access control lists) to files or folders and also one that can be used within batch files. 

Which of the following tools can be used for that purpose? (Choose the best answer) 

A. PERM.exe 

B. CACLS.exe 

C. CLACS.exe 

D. NTPERM.exe 


Explanation: Cacls.exe is a Windows NT/2000/XP command-line tool you can use to assign, display, or modify ACLs (access control lists) to files or folders. Cacls is an interactive tool, and since it's a command-line utility, you can also use it in batch files.