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Q21.  - (Topic 3)

What information does a router running a link-state protocol use to build and maintain its topological database? (Choose two.)

A. hello packets

B. SAP messages sent by other routers

C. LSAs from other routers

D. beacons received on point-to-point links

E. routing tables received from other link-state routers

F. TTL packets from designated routers

Answer: A,C


Neighbor discovery is the first step in getting a link state environment up and running. In keeping with the friendly neighbor terminology, a Hello protocol is used for this step. The protocol will define a Hello packet format and a procedure for exchanging the packets and processing the information the packets contain.

After the adjacencies are established, the routers may begin sending out LSAs. As the term flooding implies, the advertisements are sent to every neighbor. In turn, each received LSA

is copied and forwarded to every neighbor except the one that sent the LSA.

Q22.  - (Topic 7)

Refer to the exhibit.

HostA cannot ping HostB. Assuming routing is properly configured, what is the cause of this problem?

A. HostA is not on the same subnet as its default gateway.

B. The address of SwitchA is a subnet address.

C. The Fa0/0 interface on RouterA is on a subnet that can't be used.

D. The serial interfaces of the routers are not on the same subnet.

E. The Fa0/0 interface on RouterB is using a broadcast address.

Answer: D


Now let’s find out the range of the networks on serial link: For the network

Increment: 32

Network address:

Broadcast address: For the network Increment: 32

Network address:

Broadcast address:

-> These two IP addresses don’t belong to the same network and they can’t see each other.

Q23.  - (Topic 5)

On which options are standard access lists based?

A. destination address and wildcard mask

B. destination address and subnet mask

C. source address and subnet mask

D. source address and wildcard mask

Answer: D


Standard ACL’s only examine the source IP address/mask to determine if a match is made. Extended ACL’s examine the source and destination address, as well as port information.

Q24.  - (Topic 8)

Which feature can you implement to reserve bandwidth for VoIP calls across the call path?



C. round robin


Answer: D

Q25.  - (Topic 4)

Which two statistics appear in show frame-relay map output? (Choose two.)

A. the number of BECN packets that are received by the router

B. the value of the local DLCI

C. the number of FECN packets that are received by the router

D. the status of the PVC that is configured on the router

E. the IP address of the local router

Answer: B,D


Sample “show frame-relay map” output: R1#sh frame map

Serial0/0 (up): ip dlci 401(0x191,0x6410), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active

Serial0/0 (up): ip dlci 403(0x193,0x6430), dynamic, broadcast,, status defined, active

Serial0/0 (up): ip dlci 401(0x191,0x6410), static, CISCO, status defined, active

Q26.  - (Topic 6)

What can be done to secure the virtual terminal interfaces on a router? (Choose two.)

A. Administratively shut down the interface.

B. Physically secure the interface.

C. Create an access list and apply it to the virtual terminal interfaces with the access-group command.

D. Configure a virtual terminal password and login process.

E. Enter an access list and apply it to the virtual terminal interfaces using the access-class command.

Answer: D,E


It is a waste to administratively shut down the interface. Moreover, someone can still access the virtual terminal interfaces via other interfaces ->

We cannot physically secure a virtual interface because it is “virtual” ->.

To apply an access list to a virtual terminal interface we must use the “access-class” command. The “access-group” command is only used to apply an access list to a physical interface -> C is not correct.

The most simple way to secure the virtual terminal interface is to configure a username & password to prevent unauthorized login.

Q27.  - (Topic 5)

When a DHCP server is configured, which two IP addresses should never be assignable to

hosts? (Choose two.)

A. network or subnetwork IP address

B. broadcast address on the network

C. IP address leased to the LAN

D. IP address used by the interfaces

E. manually assigned address to the clients

F. designated IP address to the DHCP server

Answer: A,B


Network or subnetwork IP address (for example or and broadcast address (for example should never be assignable to hosts. When try to assign these addresses to hosts, you will receive an error message saying that they can’t be assignable.

Q28.  - (Topic 3)

Refer to the exhibit.

For what two reasons has the router loaded its IOS image from the location that is shown? (Choose two.)

A. Router1 has specific boot system commands that instruct it to load IOS from a TFTP server.

B. Router1 is acting as a TFTP server for other routers.

C. Router1 cannot locate a valid IOS image in flash memory.

D. Router1 defaulted to ROMMON mode and loaded the IOS image from a TFTP server.

E. Cisco routers will first attempt to load an image from TFTP for management purposes.

Answer: A,C


The loading sequence of CISCO IOS is as follows: Booting up the router and locating the Cisco IOS

1. POST (power on self-test)

2. Bootstrap code executed

3. Check Configuration Register value (NVRAM) which can be modified using the config- register command

0 = ROM Monitor mode 1 = ROM IOS

2 - 15 = startup-config in NVRAM

4. Startup-config filE. Check for boot system commands (NVRAM)

If boot system commands in startup-config

a. Run boot system commands in order they appear in startup-config to locate the IOS

b. [If boot system commands fail, use default fallback sequence to locate the IOS (Flash, TFTP, ROM)?]

If no boot system commands in startup-config use the default fallback sequence in locating the IOS:

a. Flash (sequential)

b. TFTP server (netboot)

c. ROM (partial IOS) or keep retrying TFTP depending upon router model

5. If IOS is loaded, but there is no startup-config file, the router will use the default fallback sequence for locating the IOS and then it will enter setup mode or the setup dialogue.

Q29.  - (Topic 8)

Which command can you use to set the hostname on a switch?

A. switch-mdf-c1(config)#hostname switch-mdf1

B. switch-mdf-c1>hostname switch-mdf1

C. switch-mdf-c1#hostname switch-mdf1

D. switch-mdf-c1(config-if)#hostname switch-mdf1

Answer: A

Q30.  - (Topic 5)

How is an EUI-64 format interface ID created from a 48-bit MAC address?

A. by appending 0xFF to the MAC address

B. by prefixing the MAC address with 0xFFEE

C. by prefixing the MAC address with 0xFF and appending 0xFF to it

D. by inserting 0xFFFE between the upper three bytes and the lower three bytes of the MAC address

E. by prefixing the MAC address with 0xF and inserting 0xF after each of its first three bytes

Answer: D


The modified EUI-64 format interface identifier is derived from the 48-bit link-layer (MAC) address by inserting the hexadecimal number FFFE between the upper three bytes (OUI field) and the lower three bytes (serial number) of the link layer address.