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Q11. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

How will the router handle a packet destined for 192.0.2.156? 

A. The router will drop the packet. 

B. The router will return the packet to its source. 

C. The router will forward the packet via Serial2. 

D. The router will forward the packet via either Serial0 or Serial1. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Router has pointed default router to 192.168.4.1 and this subnet is connected via serial 2 interface. Router does not have router for the 192.0.2.156. so it will use the default gateway 

192.168.4.1. A default route identifies the gateway IP address to which the router sends all IP packets for which it does not have a learned or static route. 


Q12. - (Topic 1) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

The output that is shown is generated at a switch. Which three statements are true? (Choose three.) 

A. All ports will be in a state of discarding, learning, or forwarding. 

B. Thirty VLANs have been configured on this switch. 

C. The bridge priority is lower than the default value for spanning tree. 

D. All interfaces that are shown are on shared media. 

E. All designated ports are in a forwarding state. 

F. This switch must be the root bridge for all VLANs on this switch. 

Answer: A,C,E 

Explanation: 

From the output, we see that all ports are in Designated role (forwarding state) -> A and E 

are correct. 

The command “show spanning-tree vlan 30 only shows us information about VLAN 30. We 

don’t know how many VLAN exists in this switch -> B is not correct. 

The bridge priority of this switch is 24606 which is lower than the default value bridge 

priority 32768 -> C is correct. 

All three interfaces on this switch have the connection type “p2p”, which means Point-to-point environment – not a shared media -> D is not correct. 

The only thing we can specify is this switch is the root bridge for VLAN 3o but we can not 

guarantee it is also the root bridge for other VLANs -> F is not correct. 


Q13. - (Topic 2) 

What are three characteristics of the OSPF routing protocol? (Choose three.) 

A. It converges quickly. 

B. OSPF is a classful routing protocol. 

C. It uses cost to determine the best route. 

D. It uses the DUAL algorithm to determine the best route. 

E. OSPF routers send the complete routing table to all directly attached routers. 

F. OSPF routers discover neighbors before exchanging routing information. 

Answer: A,C,F 

Explanation: 

Open Shortest Path First Reference: 

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Open_Shortest_Path_First 

Explanation: 

Additional OSPF features include equal-cost, multipath routing, and routing based on upper-layer type-of-service (TOS) requests. TOS-based routing supports those upper-layer protocols that can specify particular types of service. An application, for example, might specify that certain data is urgent. If OSPF has high-priority links at its disposal, these can be used to transport the urgent datagram. 

OSPF supports one or more metrics. If only one metric is used, it is considered to be arbitrary, and TOS is not supported. If more than one metric is used, TOS is optionally supported through the use of a separate metric (and, therefore, a separate routing table) for each of the eight combinations created by the three IP TOS bits (the delay, throughput, and reliability bits). For example, if the IP TOS bits specify low delay, low throughput, and high reliability, OSPF calculates routes to all destinations based on this TOS designation. IP subnet masks are included with each advertised destination, enabling variable-length subnet masks. With variable-length subnet masks, an IP network can be broken into many subnets of various sizes. This provides network administrators with extra network-configuration flexibility. 


Q14. DRAG DROP - (Topic 2) 

Answer: 

Explanation: 

+ holddown timer: prevents a router from improperly reinstating a route from a regular routing update 

+ split horizon: prevents information about a route from being sent in the direction from which the route was learned 

+ defining a maximum: prevents invalid updates from looping the internetwork indefinitely 

+ route poisoning: causes a routing protocol to advertise an infinite metric for a failed route 

+ triggered update: decreases convergence time by immediately sending route information in response to a topology change 


Q15. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Assume that all of the router interfaces are operational and configured correctly. How will router R2 be affected by the configuration of R1 that is shown in the exhibit? 

A. Router R2 will not form a neighbor relationship with R1. 

B. Router R2 will obtain a full routing table, including a default route, from R1. 

C. R2 will obtain OSPF updates from R1, but will not obtain a default route from R1. 

D. R2 will not have a route for the directly connected serial network, but all other directly connected networks will be present, as well as the two Ethernet networks connected to R1. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Open Shortest Path First http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Shortest_Path_First 

The configuration of R1 shows "router ospf 1" however, the diagram also shows that both routers should be in the backbone OSPF Area of "0". When routers are in different OSPF areas they will not form a neighbor relationship. Neighbor relationships As a link state routing protocol, OSPF establishes and maintains neighbor relationships in order to exchange routing updates with other routers. The neighbor relationship table is called an adjacency database in OSPF. Provided that OSPF is configured correctly, OSPF forms neighbor relationships only with the routers directly connected to it. In order to form a neighbor relationship between two routers, the interfaces used to form the relationship must be in the same area. Generally an interface is only configured in a single area, however you can configure an interface to belong to multiple areas. In the second area, such an interface must be configured as a secondary interface. (A neighbor state simulation shows how neighbor state changes from Down to Full Adjacency progressively with exchanging Hello, DD, Request, Update, and Ack packets). 


Q16. - (Topic 2) 

What is the default administrative distance of OSPF? 

A. 90 

B. 100 

C. 110 

D. 120 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Default Distance Value Table This table lists the administrative distance default values of the protocols that Cisco supports: 


Q17. - (Topic 3) 

At which layer of the OSI model does PPP perform? 

A. Layer 2 

B. Layer 3 

C. Layer 4 

D. Layer 5 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol commonly used in establishing a direct connection between two networking nodes. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption (using ECP, RFC 1968), and compression. 


Q18. - (Topic 2) 

When a router undergoes the exchange protocol within OSPF, in what order does it pass through each state? 

A. exstart state > loading state > exchange state > full state 

B. exstart state > exchange state > loading state > full state 

C. exstart state > full state > loading state > exchange state 

D. loading state > exchange state > full state > exstart state 

Answer:

Explanation: 

OSPF states for adjacency formation are (in order) Down, Init, Attempt, 2-way, Exstart, 

Exchange, Loading and Full. 

Reference: 

Why Are OSPF Neighbors Stuck in Exstart/Exchange State? 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f0d.shtml 


Q19. - (Topic 2) 

Which statement describes an EIGRP feasible successor route? 

A. A primary route, added to the routing table 

B. A backup route, added to the routing table 

C. A primary route, added to the topology table 

D. A backup route, added to the topology table 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Two terms that appear often in the EIGRP world are "successor" and "feasible successor". A successor is the route with the best metric to reach a destination. That route is stored in the routing table. A feasible successor is a backup path to reach that same destination that can be used immediately if the successor route fails. These backup routes are stored in the topology table. 

Reference: http://study-ccna.com/eigrp-overview 


Q20. - (Topic 3) 

What is the purpose of Inverse ARP? 

A. to map a known IP address to a MAC address 

B. to map a known DLCI to a MAC address 

C. to map a known MAC address to an IP address 

D. to map a known DLCI to an IP address 

E. to map a known IP address to a SPID 

F. to map a known SPID to a MAC address 

Answer:

Explanation: 

http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=170741&seqNum=4 

Frame-Relay (a Layer 2 protocol) uses Inverse-Arp to map a know Layer 2 Address (DLCI) to a unknow Layer 3 Address. Dynamic Mapping Dynamic address mapping relies on the Frame Relay Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (Inverse ARP), defined by RFC 1293, to resolve a next hop network protocol address to a local DLCI value. The Frame Relay router sends out Inverse ARP requests on its Frame Relay PVC to discover the protocol address of the remote device connected to the Frame Relay network. The responses to the Inverse ARP requests are used to populate an address-to-DLCI mapping table on the Frame Relay router or access server. The router builds and maintains this address-to-DLCI mapping table, which contains all resolved Inverse ARP requests, including both dynamic and static mapping entries. When data needs to be transmitted to a remote destination address, the router performs a lookup on its routing table to determine whether a route to that destination address exists and the next hop address or directly connected interface to use in order to reach that destination. Subsequently, the router consults its address-to-DLCI mapping table for the local DLCI that corresponds to the next hop address. Finally, the router places the frames targeted to the remote destination on its identified outgoing local DLCI. On Cisco routers, dynamic Inverse ARP is enabled by default for all network layer protocols enabled on the physical interface. Packets are not sent out for network layer protocols that are not enabled on the physical interface. For example, no dynamic Inverse ARP resolution is performed for IPX if ipx routing is not enabled globally and there is no active IPX address assigned to the interface. Because dynamic Inverse ARP is enabled by default, no additional Cisco IOS command is required to enable it on an interface. Example 4-16 shows the output of the show frame-relay map privileged EXEC mode command. The addressto-DLCI mapping table displays useful information. The output of the command shows that the next hop address 172.16.1.2 is dynamically mapped to the local DLCI 102, broadcast is enabled on the interface, and the interface's status is currently active. 

NOTE After enabling Frame Relay on the interface, the Cisco router does not perform Inverse ARP until IP routing is enabled on the router. By default, IP routing is enabled on a Cisco router. If IP routing has been turned off, enable IP routing with the ip routing command in the global configuration mode. After IP routing is enabled, the router performs Inverse ARP and begins populating the address-to-DLCI mapping table with resolved entries.