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Q1. - (Topic 2) 

What can cause two OSPF neighbors to be stuck in the EXSTART state? 

A. There is a low bandwidth connection between neighbors. 

B. The neighbors have different MTU settings. 

C. The OSPF interfaces are in a passive state. 

D. There is only layer one connectivity between neighbors. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Neighbors Stuck in Exstart/Exchange State The problem occurs most frequently when attempting to run OSPF between a Cisco router and another vendor's router. The problem occurs when the maximum transmission unit (MTU) settings for neighboring router interfaces don't match. If the router with the higher MTU sends a packet larger that the MTU set on the neighboring router, the neighboring router ignores the packet.0 When this problem occurs, the output of the show ip ospf neighbor command displays output similar that shown below: router-6# show ip ospf neighbor 

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 

170.170.11.7 1 EXCHANGE/ - 00:00:36 170.170.11.7 Serial2.7 router-6# router-7# show ip ospf neighbor 

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 

170.170.11.6 1 EXSTART/ - 00:00:33 170.170.11.6 Serial0.6 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/open-shortest-path-first-ospf/13684-12.html 


Q2. - (Topic 3) 

Which two options are valid WAN connectivity methods? (Choose two.) 

A. PPP 

B. WAP 

C. DSL 

D. L2TPv3 

E. Ethernet 

Answer: A,C 

Explanation: 

On each WAN connection, data is encapsulated into frames before itcrosses the WAN link. The following are typical WAN protocols:1. High-level Data Link Control (HDLC): The Cisco default encapsulation type onpoint-to-point connections, dedicated links, and circuit-switches connections.2. PPP: Provides router-to-router and host-to-network connections over synchronous andasynchronous circuits. PPP was designed to work with several network layer protocols,including IP.3. Frame-relay: A successor to X.25. This protocol is an industry-standard, switchesdata-link layer protocol that handles multiple virtual circuits 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide_area_network 


Q3. DRAG DROP - (Topic 3) 

Answer: 

Explanation: 

1) a router is this type of device: DTE2) the most common type of virtual circuit: PVC3) provides status messages between DTE and DCE devices: LMI4) identifies the virtual connection between the DTE and the switch: DLCI 

CCNA Certification Test Prep Case Study http://www.thebryantadvantage.com/CCNACertificationExamTutorialDirectlyConnectedSeri alInterfaces.htm Configuring the LMI Type on a Frame Relay Interface http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=170741&seqNum=3 Frame Relay DLCIs And Mappings http://www.mcmcse.com/cisco/guides/frame_relay_dlci.shtml 


Q4. - (Topic 3) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

A network associate has configured OSPF with the command: City(config-router)# network 192.168.12.64 0.0.0.63 area 0 After completing the configuration, the associate discovers that not all the interfaces are participating in OSPF. Which three of the interfaces shown in the exhibit will participate in OSPF according to this configuration statement? (Choose three.) 

A. FastEthernet0 /0 

B. FastEthernet0 /1 

C. Serial0/0 

D. Serial0/1.102 

E. Serial0/1.103 

F. Serial0/1.104 

Answer: B,C,D 

Explanation: 

The “network 192.168.12.64 0.0.0.63 equals to network 192.168.12.64/26. This network has:Increment: 64 (/26= 1111 1111.1111 1111.1111 1111.1100 0000)Network address: 

192.168.12.64 Broadcast address: 192.168.12.127Therefore all interface in the range of this network will join OSPF - B C D are correct. 


Q5. - (Topic 3) 

It has become necessary to configure an existing serial interface to accept a second Frame Relay virtual circuit. Which of the following are required to solve this? (Choose three) 

A. configure static frame relay map entries for each subinterface network. 

B. remove the ip address from the physical interface 

C. create the virtual interfaces with the interface command 

D. configure each subinterface with its own IP address 

E. disable split horizon to prevent routing loops between the subinterface networks 

F. encapsulate the physical interface with multipoint PPP 

Answer: B,C,D 

Explanation: 

How To Configure Frame Relay Subinterfaces http://www.orbit-computer-solutions.com/How-To-Configure-Frame-Relay-Subinterfaces.php 

Step to configure Frame Relay subinterfaces on a physical interface: 

1. Remove any network layer address (IP) assigned to the physical interface. If the physical interface has an address, frames are not received by the local subinterfaces. 

2. Configure Frame Relay encapsulation on the physical interface using the encapsulation frame-relay command. 

3. For each of the defined PVCs, create a logical subinterface. Specify the port number, followed by a period (.) and the subinterface number. To make troubleshooting easier, it is suggested that the subinterface number matches the DLCI number. 

4. Configure an IP address for the interface and set the bandwidth. 

5. Configure the local DLCI on the subinterface using the frame-relay interface-dlci command. Configuration Example: R1>enable R1#configure terminal R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)#no ip address R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay R1(config-if)#no shutdown R1(config-if)#exit R1(config-subif)#interface serial 0/0/0.102 point-to-point R1(config-subif)#ip address 192.168.1.245 255.255.255.252 R1(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 102 R1(config-subif)#end R1#copy running-config startup-config 


Q6. - (Topic 1) 

Which two states are the port states when RSTP has converged? (Choose two.) 

A. discarding 

B. listening 

C. learning 

D. forwarding 

E. disabled 

Answer: A,D 

Explanation: 

Understanding Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (802.1w) 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094cf a.shtml 

Port States There are only three port states left in RSTP that correspond to the three possible operational states. The 802.1D disabled, blocking, and listening states are merged into a unique 802.1w discarding state. RSTP only has 3 port states which are discarding, learning and forwarding. When RSTP has converged there are only 2 port states left: discarding and forwarding. 


Q7. - (Topic 1) 

What is one benefit of PVST+? 

A. PVST+ supports Layer 3 load balancing without loops. 

B. PVST+ reduces the CPU cycles for all the switches in the network. 

C. PVST+ allows the root switch location to be optimized per VLAN. 

D. PVST+ automatically selects the root bridge location, to provide optimized bandwidth usage. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Per VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) Introduction http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/tk846/tsd_technology_support_sub-protocol_home.html Per VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST) maintains a spanning tree instance for each VLAN configured in the network. This means a switch can be the root bridge of a VLAN while another switch can be the root bridge of other VLANs in a common topology. For example, Switch 1 can be the root bridge for Voice data while Switch 2 can be the root bridge for Video data. If designed correctly, it can optimize the network traffic. http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=102157&seqNum=4 

Topic 2, Routing Technologies 


Q8. - (Topic 1) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Why has this switch not been elected the root bridge for VLAN1? 

A. It has more than one interface that is connected to the root network segment. 

B. It is running RSTP while the elected root bridge is running 802.1d spanning tree. 

C. It has a higher MAC address than the elected root bridge. 

D. It has a higher bridge ID than the elected root bridge. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_tech_note09186a008009482f.s html When a switch receives a BPDU, it first compares priority, the lower number wins. If a tie, compare MAC, the smaller one wins. Here Switch has 32769 priority which is greater than 20481 so switch will not elect for root bridge. It says the bridge priority for Switch is 32769, and the root priority is 20481. Which means that some other switch has the lower priority and won the election for VLAN 1. 


Q9. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

What information about the interfaces on the Main_Campus router is true? 

A. The LAN interfaces are configured on different subnets. 

B. Interface FastEthernet 0/0 is configured as a trunk. 

C. The Layer 2 protocol of interface Serial 0/1 is NOT operational. 

D. The router is a modular router with five FastEthernet interfaces. 

E. Interface FastEthernet 0/0 is administratively deactivated. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Interface fa0/0 breaks into sub-interfaces and Main_Campus router is connected with switch via fa0/0 .Subinterfaces configured with different subnet masks so the same switch has multiple vlans and allows communication between these VLAN's. For routing and inter-vlan we need to configure a trunk port. So B will be the correct answer. 


Q10. - (Topic 2) 

What can be done to secure the virtual terminal interfaces on a router? (Choose two.) 

A. Administratively shut down the interface. 

B. Physically secure the interface. 

C. Create an access list and apply it to the virtual terminal interfaces with the access-group command. 

D. Configure a virtual terminal password and login process. 

E. Enter an access list and apply it to the virtual terminal interfaces using the access-class command. 

Answer: D,E 

Explanation: 

It is a waste to administratively shut down the interface. Moreover, someone can still access the virtual terminal interfaces via other interfaces -> A is not correct. 

We can not physically secure a virtual interface because it is “virtual” -> B is not correct. 

To apply an access list to a virtual terminal interface we must use the “access-class” command. The “access-group” command is only used to apply an access list to a physical interface -> C is not correct; E is correct. 

The most simple way to secure the virtual terminal interface is to configure a username & password to prevent unauthorized login -> D is correct.