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Q11. - (Topic 2) 

What can be done to secure the virtual terminal interfaces on a router? (Choose two.) 

A. Administratively shut down the interface. 

B. Physically secure the interface. 

C. Create an access list and apply it to the virtual terminal interfaces with the access-group command. 

D. Configure a virtual terminal password and login process. 

E. Enter an access list and apply it to the virtual terminal interfaces using the access-class command. 

Answer: D,E 

Explanation: 

It is a waste to administratively shut down the interface. Moreover, someone can still access the virtual terminal interfaces via other interfaces -> A is not correct. 

We can not physically secure a virtual interface because it is “virtual” -> B is not correct. 

To apply an access list to a virtual terminal interface we must use the “access-class” command. The “access-group” command is only used to apply an access list to a physical interface -> C is not correct; E is correct. 

The most simple way to secure the virtual terminal interface is to configure a username & password to prevent unauthorized login -> D is correct. 


Q12. - (Topic 1) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Given the output shown from this Cisco Catalyst 2950, what is the reason that interface FastEthernet 0/10 is not the root port for VLAN 2? 

A. This switch has more than one interface connected to the root network segment in VLAN 2. 

B. This switch is running RSTP while the elected designated switch is running 802.1d Spanning Tree. 

C. This switch interface has a higher path cost to the root bridge than another in the topology. 

D. This switch has a lower bridge ID for VLAN 2 than the elected designated switch. 

Answer:

Explanation: These four parameters are examined in order to make root bridge , root port , designated port. Other switch has lowest Sending Bridge ID or Sending Port ID so vlan 2 is not the root port. 

1. A lower Root Bridge ID2. A lower path cost to the Root3. A lower Sending Bridge ID4. A lower Sending Port ID 


Q13. - (Topic 2) 

Which commands are required to properly configure a router to run OSPF and to add network 192.168.16.0/24 to OSPF area 0? (Choose two.) 

A. Router(config)# router ospf 0 

B. Router(config)# router ospf 1 

C. Router(config)# router ospf area 0 

D. Router(config-router)# network 192.168.16.0 0.0.0.255 0 

E. Router(config-router)# network 192.168.16.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 

F. Router(config-router)# network 192.168.16.0 255.255.255.0 area 0 

Answer: B,E 

Explanation: 

In the router ospf Command, the ranges from 1 to 65535 so o is an invalid number - B is correct but A is not correct. To configure OSPF, we need a wildcard in the “network” statement, not a subnet mask. We also need to assign an area to this process - E is correct. 


Q14. DRAG DROP - (Topic 2) 

Answer: 

Explanation: 

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol, so it is vendor-specific. By default, EIGRP internal routes have an administrative distance value of 90. OSPF uses cost as its metric. By default, the cost of an interface is calculated based on bandwidth with the formula cost= 10000 0000/bandwidth (in bps). OSPF elects a DR on each broadcast and nonbroadcast multiaccess networks (like Ethernet and Frame Relay environments, respectively). It doesn’t elect a DR on point-to-point link (like a serial WAN). 


Q15. - (Topic 3) 

Which PPP subprotocol negotiates authentication options? 

A. NCP 

B. ISDN 

C. SLIP 

D. LCP 

E. DLCI 

Answer:

Explanation: 

A protocol that establishes, configures, and tests data link connections used by the PPP Link Control Protocol offers PPP encapsulation different options, including the following: Authentication - options includes PAP and CHAP Compression - Data compression increases the throughput on a network link, by reducing the amount of data that must be transmitted. Error Detection -Quality and Magic numbers are used by PPP to ensure a reliable, loop-free data link. Multilink - Supported in IOS 11.1 and later, multilink is supported on PPP links between Cisco routers. This splits the load for PPP over two or more parallel circuits and is called a bundle. 


Q16. - (Topic 2) 

Which two statements describe the process identifier that is used in the command to configure OSPF on a router? (Choose two.) 

Router(config)# router ospf 1 

A. All OSPF routers in an area must have the same process ID. 

B. Only one process number can be used on the same router. 

C. Different process identifiers can be used to run multiple OSPF processes 

D. The process number can be any number from 1 to 65,535. 

E. Hello packets are sent to each neighbor to determine the processor identifier. 

Answer: C,D 

Explanation: 

The areas can be any number from 0 to 4.2 billion and 1 to 65,535 for the Process ID. The process ID is the ID of the OSPF process to which the interface belongs. The process ID is local to the router, and two OSPF neighboring routers can have different OSPF process IDs. (This is not true of Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol [EIGRP], in which the routers need to be in the same autonomous system). Cisco IOS Software can run multiple OSPF processes on the same router, and the process ID merely distinguishes one process from the other. The process ID should be a positive integer. 


Q17. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Assume that all of the router interfaces are operational and configured correctly. How will router R2 be affected by the configuration of R1 that is shown in the exhibit? 

A. Router R2 will not form a neighbor relationship with R1. 

B. Router R2 will obtain a full routing table, including a default route, from R1. 

C. R2 will obtain OSPF updates from R1, but will not obtain a default route from R1. 

D. R2 will not have a route for the directly connected serial network, but all other directly connected networks will be present, as well as the two Ethernet networks connected to R1. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Open Shortest Path First http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Shortest_Path_First 

The configuration of R1 shows "router ospf 1" however, the diagram also shows that both routers should be in the backbone OSPF Area of "0". When routers are in different OSPF areas they will not form a neighbor relationship. Neighbor relationships As a link state routing protocol, OSPF establishes and maintains neighbor relationships in order to exchange routing updates with other routers. The neighbor relationship table is called an adjacency database in OSPF. Provided that OSPF is configured correctly, OSPF forms neighbor relationships only with the routers directly connected to it. In order to form a neighbor relationship between two routers, the interfaces used to form the relationship must be in the same area. Generally an interface is only configured in a single area, however you can configure an interface to belong to multiple areas. In the second area, such an interface must be configured as a secondary interface. (A neighbor state simulation shows how neighbor state changes from Down to Full Adjacency progressively with exchanging Hello, DD, Request, Update, and Ack packets). 


Q18. - (Topic 1) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Each of these four switches has been configured with a hostname, as well as being configured to run RSTP. No other configuration changes have been made. Which three of these show the correct RSTP port roles for the indicated switches and interfaces? (Choose three.) 

A. SwitchA, Fa0/2, designated 

B. SwitchA, Fa0/1, root 

C. SwitchB, Gi0/2, root 

D. SwitchB, Gi0/1, designated 

E. SwitchC, Fa0/2, root 

F. SwitchD, Gi0/2, root 

Answer: A,B,F 

Explanation: 

The question says "no other configuration changes have been made" so we can 

understand these switches have the same bridge priority. SwitchC has lowest MAC 

address so, it will become root bridge and 2 of its ports (Fa0/1 & Fa0/2) will be designated 

ports (DP). Because SwitchC is the root bridge the 2 ports nearest SwitchC on SwitchA 

(Fa0/1) and SwitchD (Gi0/2) will be root ports (RP) -> B and F are correct. 

SwitchB must have a root port so which port will it choose? To answer this question we 

need to know about STP cost and port cost. 

In general, "cost" is calculated based on bandwidth of the link. The higher the bandwidth on 

a link, the lower the value of its cost. Below are the cost values you should memorize: 

Link speed Cost SwitchB will choose the interface with lower cost to the root bridge as the root port so we must calculate the cost on interface Gi0/1 & Gi0/2 of SwitchB to the root bridge. This can be calculated from the "cost to the root bridge" of each switch because a switch always advertises its cost to the root bridge in its BPDU. The receiving switch will add its local port cost value to the cost in the BPDU. SwitchC advertises its cost to the root bridge with a value of 0. Switch D adds 4 (the cost value of 1Gbps link) and advertises this value (4) to SwitchB. SwitchB adds another 4 and learns that it can reach SwitchC via Gi0/1 port with a total cost of 8. The same process happens for SwitchA and SwitchB learns that it can reach SwitchC via Gi0/2 with a total cost of 23 -> Switch B chooses Gi0/1 as its root port. Now our last task is to identify the port roles of the ports between SwitchA & SwitchB. It is rather easy as the MAC address of SwitchA is lower than that of SwitchB so Fa0/2 of SwitchA will be designated port while Gi0/2 of SwitchB will be alternative port. 


Q19. - (Topic 3) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Which statement describes DLCI 17? 

A. DLCI 17 describes the ISDN circuit between R2 and R3. 

B. DLCI 17 describes a PVC on R2. It cannot be used on R3 or R1. 

C. DLCI 17 is the Layer 2 address used by R2 to describe a PVC to R3. 

D. DLCI 17 describes the dial-up circuit from R2 and R3 to the service provider. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

DLCI stands for Data Link Connection Identifier. DLCI values are used on Frame Relay interfaces to distinguish between different virtual circuits. DLCIs have local significance because, the identifier references the point between the local router and the local Frame Relay switch to which the DLCI is connected. 


Q20. - (Topic 2) 

A router receives information about network 192.168.10.0/24 from multiple sources. What will the router consider the most reliable information about the path to that network? 

A. an OSPF update for network 192.168.0.0/16 

B. a static route to network 192.168.10.0/24 

C. a static route to network 192.168.10.0/24 with a local serial interface configured as the next hop 

D. a RIP update for network 192.168.10.0/24 

E. a directly connected interface with an address of 192.168.10.254/24 

F. a default route with a next hop address of 192.168.10.1 

Answer:

Explanation: 

What Is Administrative Distance? http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094195.shtml 

Select the Best Path Administrative distance is the first criterion that a router uses to determine which routing protocol to use if two protocols provide route information for the same destination. Administrative distance is a measure of the trustworthiness of the source of the routing information. Administrative distance has only local significance, and is not advertised in routing updates. Note: The smaller the administrative distance value, the more reliable the protocol. For example, if a router receives a route to a certain network from both Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) (default administrative distance - 110) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) (default administrative distance - 100), the router chooses IGRP because IGRP is more reliable. This means the router adds the IGRP version of the route to the routing table.