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Q1. - (Topic 1) 

What are two characteristics of a switch that is configured as a VTP client? (Choose two.) 

A. If a switch that is configured to operate in client mode cannot access a VTP server, then the switch reverts to transparent mode. 

B. On switches that are configured to operate in client mode, VLANs can be created, deleted, or renamed locally. 

C. The local VLAN configuration is updated only when an update that has a higher configuration revision number is received. 

D. VTP advertisements are not forwarded to neighboring switches that are configured in VTP transparent mode. 

E. VTP client is the default VTP mode. 

F. When switches in VTP client mode are rebooted, they send a VTP advertisement request to the VTP servers. 

Answer: C,F 

Explanation: 

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) http://archive.networknewz.com/2004/0317.html 

VTP Modes Server Mode Once VTP is configured on a Cisco switch, the default mode used is Server Mode. In any given VTP management domain, at least one switch must be in Server Mode. When in Server Mode, a switch can be used to add, delete, and modify VLANs, and this information will be passed to all other switches in the VTP management domain. Client Mode When a switch is configured to use VTP Client Mode, it is simply the recipient of any VLANs added, deleted, or modified by a switch in Server Mode within the same management domain. A switch in VTP client mode cannot make any changes to VLAN information. Transparent Mode A switch in VTP Transparent Mode will pass VTP updates received by switches in Server Mode to other switches in the VTP management domain, but will not actually process the contents of these messages. When individual VLANs are added, deleted, or modified on a switch running in transparent mode, the changes are local to that particular switch only, and are not passed to other switches in the VTP management domain. 


Q2. - (Topic 2) 

What are three characteristics of the OSPF routing protocol? (Choose three.) 

A. It converges quickly. 

B. OSPF is a classful routing protocol. 

C. It uses cost to determine the best route. 

D. It uses the DUAL algorithm to determine the best route. 

E. OSPF routers send the complete routing table to all directly attached routers. 

F. OSPF routers discover neighbors before exchanging routing information. 

Answer: A,C,F 

Explanation: 

Open Shortest Path First Reference: 

http://docwiki.cisco.com/wiki/Open_Shortest_Path_First 

Explanation: 

Additional OSPF features include equal-cost, multipath routing, and routing based on upper-layer type-of-service (TOS) requests. TOS-based routing supports those upper-layer protocols that can specify particular types of service. An application, for example, might specify that certain data is urgent. If OSPF has high-priority links at its disposal, these can be used to transport the urgent datagram. 

OSPF supports one or more metrics. If only one metric is used, it is considered to be arbitrary, and TOS is not supported. If more than one metric is used, TOS is optionally supported through the use of a separate metric (and, therefore, a separate routing table) for each of the eight combinations created by the three IP TOS bits (the delay, throughput, and reliability bits). For example, if the IP TOS bits specify low delay, low throughput, and high reliability, OSPF calculates routes to all destinations based on this TOS designation. IP subnet masks are included with each advertised destination, enabling variable-length subnet masks. With variable-length subnet masks, an IP network can be broken into many subnets of various sizes. This provides network administrators with extra network-configuration flexibility. 


Q3. - (Topic 2) 

Which statement describes an EIGRP feasible successor route? 

A. A primary route, added to the routing table 

B. A backup route, added to the routing table 

C. A primary route, added to the topology table 

D. A backup route, added to the topology table 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Two terms that appear often in the EIGRP world are "successor" and "feasible successor". A successor is the route with the best metric to reach a destination. That route is stored in the routing table. A feasible successor is a backup path to reach that same destination that can be used immediately if the successor route fails. These backup routes are stored in the topology table. 

Reference: http://study-ccna.com/eigrp-overview 


Q4. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

What address is a feasible successor? 

A. 172.16.4.0 

B. 10.1.4.4 

C. 10.1.2.2 

D. 172.16.3.0 

Answer: C Explanation: 

The feasible condition states: 

“To qualify as a feasible successor, a router must have an AD less than the FD of the current successor route”. 

In this case, we see 10.1.2.2 shows an AD less than the current successor of 10.1.4.4 


Q5. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

RTA is configured with a basic configuration. The link between the two routers is operational and no routing protocols are configured on either router. The line shown in the exhibit is then added to router RTA. Should interface Fa0/0 on router RTB shut down, what effect will the shutdown have on router RTA? 

A. A route to 172.16.14.0/24 will remain in the RTA routing table. 

B. A packet to host 172.16.14.225 will be dropped by router RTA. 

C. Router RTA will send an ICMP packet to attempt to verify the route. 

D. Because router RTB will send a poison reverse packet to router RTA, RTA will remove the route. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Static routes remain in the routing table even if the specified gateway becomes unavailable. If the specified gateway becomes unavailable, you need to remove the static route from the routing table manually. However, static routes are removed from the routing table if the specified interface goes down, and are reinstated when the interface comes back up. Therefore the static route will only be removed from the routing table if the S0/0 interface on RTA is shutdown. 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/security/asa/asa84/configuration/guide/route_static.html) 


Q6. - (Topic 3) 

Which command is used to enable CHAP authentication, with PAP as the fallback method, on a serial interface? 

A. Router(config-if)# ppp authentication chap fallback ppp 

B. Router(config-if)# ppp authentication chap pap 

C. Router(config-if)# authentication ppp chap fallback ppp 

D. Router(config-if)# authentication ppp chap pap 

Answer:

Explanation: 

The command “ppp authentication chap pap” command indicates the CHAP authentication is used first. If it fails or is rejected by other side then uses PAP instead. If you want to use PAP first (then CHAP) you can use the “ppp authentication pap chap” command 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_2/security/configuration/guide/scfathen.html 


Q7. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

From R1, a network administrator is able to ping the serial interface of R2 but, unable to ping any of the subnets attached to RouterB. Based on the partial outputs in the exhibit, what could be the problem? 

A. EIGRP does not support VLSM. 

B. The EIGRP network statements are incorrectly configured. 

C. The IP addressing on the serial interface of RouterA is incorrect. 

D. The routing protocol has summarized on the classful boundary. 

E. EIGRP has been configured with an invalid autonomous system number. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

CCNA - EIGRP Common Question Reference: 

http://www.orbitco-ccna-pastquestions.com/CCNA---EIGRP-Common-Question.php 

Explanation: 

If you look carefully at the R2 ip route, you will discover that the R2 does not learn any network from R1; this is because the routing protocol used here (EIGRP) performs auto summary when advertising routes to peers across a network. So in this case the address 172.17.0.0/16 is a summarized address. If the router was configured with no auto summary command, R2 LAN addresses would have been advertised and reached. 


Q8. - (Topic 1) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

The output that is shown is generated at a switch. Which three statements are true? (Choose three.) 

A. All ports will be in a state of discarding, learning, or forwarding. 

B. Thirty VLANs have been configured on this switch. 

C. The bridge priority is lower than the default value for spanning tree. 

D. All interfaces that are shown are on shared media. 

E. All designated ports are in a forwarding state. 

F. This switch must be the root bridge for all VLANs on this switch. 

Answer: A,C,E 

Explanation: 

From the output, we see that all ports are in Designated role (forwarding state) -> A and E 

are correct. 

The command “show spanning-tree vlan 30 only shows us information about VLAN 30. We 

don’t know how many VLAN exists in this switch -> B is not correct. 

The bridge priority of this switch is 24606 which is lower than the default value bridge 

priority 32768 -> C is correct. 

All three interfaces on this switch have the connection type “p2p”, which means Point-to-point environment – not a shared media -> D is not correct. 

The only thing we can specify is this switch is the root bridge for VLAN 3o but we can not 

guarantee it is also the root bridge for other VLANs -> F is not correct. 


Q9. - (Topic 2) 

Which type of EIGRP route entry describes a feasible successor? 

A. a backup route, stored in the routing table 

B. a primary route, stored in the routing table 

C. a backup route, stored in the topology table 

D. a primary route, stored in the topology table 

Answer:

Explanation: 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f07.shtml 

Feasible Successors A destination entry is moved from the topology table to the routing table when there is a feasible successor. All minimum cost paths to the destination form a set. From this set, the neighbors that have an advertised metric less than the current routing table metric are considered feasible successors. Feasible successors are viewed by a router as neighbors that are downstream with respect to the destination. These neighbors and the associated metrics are placed in the forwarding table. When a neighbor changes the metric it has been advertising or a topology change occurs in the network, the set of feasible successors may have to be re-evaluated. However, this is not categorized as a route recomputation. Feasible successor is a route whose Advertised Distance (AD) is less than the Feasible Distance (FD) of the current best path. A feasible successor is a backup route, which is not stored in the routing table but, stored in the topology table. 


Q10. - (Topic 2) 

What can cause two OSPF neighbors to be stuck in the EXSTART state? 

A. There is a low bandwidth connection between neighbors. 

B. The neighbors have different MTU settings. 

C. The OSPF interfaces are in a passive state. 

D. There is only layer one connectivity between neighbors. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Neighbors Stuck in Exstart/Exchange State The problem occurs most frequently when attempting to run OSPF between a Cisco router and another vendor's router. The problem occurs when the maximum transmission unit (MTU) settings for neighboring router interfaces don't match. If the router with the higher MTU sends a packet larger that the MTU set on the neighboring router, the neighboring router ignores the packet.0 When this problem occurs, the output of the show ip ospf neighbor command displays output similar that shown below: router-6# show ip ospf neighbor 

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 

170.170.11.7 1 EXCHANGE/ - 00:00:36 170.170.11.7 Serial2.7 router-6# router-7# show ip ospf neighbor 

Neighbor ID Pri State Dead Time Address Interface 

170.170.11.6 1 EXSTART/ - 00:00:33 170.170.11.6 Serial0.6 

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/ip/open-shortest-path-first-ospf/13684-12.html